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Endocrine glands

Do endocrine glands contain blood sinusoids or fenestrated capillaries?

Fenestrated capillaries have continuous basement membrane and fenestrated endothelium. They are present in the endocrine glands.
Blood sinusoids are present in the liver, bone marrow and spleen, the basal lamina is discontinuous with large fenestrae in the endothelium.

What is the difference between chromaffin cells and paraganglia?

Paraganglia are widely scattered groups of cells that are similar but smaller aggregates of chromaffin cells present elsewhere in the body.Also,  they  lie retroperitoneally.

Why may the chromophobes of the adenohypophysis contain hormone secreting granules?

Many of the chromophobes may be acidophils or basophils that have degranulated and thereby are depleted of hormone. Some chromophobes may also represent stem cells that have not yet differentiated into hormone-producing cells.
Some have few cytoplasmic granules and may have secretory activity. They may be an intermediate stage between stem cells and newly formed chromophils, containing few granules not enough to give the cell its staining affinity.


How are the brain stands used as a landmark x.ray to localize any mass in the brain which may displace its position?

Brain sands are calcified structures in the pineal gland.Concentrations of brain sand increase with age, so the pineal gland becomes increasingly visible on X-rays over time, usually by the third or fourth decade. They are sometimes used as anatomical landmarks in radiological examinations. Normally the pineal gland is central in position, if there is a tumour or lesion arising from one side of the brain, the pineal gland including the brain sand will be displaced from mid-line to the other side.